Topographic name

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It had already been mentioned that topographic names are those that refer to physical features such as trees, forests, hills, streams, and marshes, as well as to man-made structures such as churches, city walls, and castles.

Surnames derived from the proper names of geographical features such as rivers have also been classed here as topographic rather than habitation names, since they refer to a geographic location rather than a particular named settlement .

Some surnames that are ostensibly topographic, such as Hall and Monkhouse, are in fact occupational, for they originally denoted someone who was employed at such a place: for example, at a great house or monastery.

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